**Appendix 2 – Glossary**

Golden Cheetah Specific Glossary

**CP:** Critical Power. A power that theoretically can be maintained for an indefinitely long time without fatigue.

**FTP:** Functional Threshold Power. The highest power that a rider can maintain in a quasi-steady state without fatiguing for approximately one hour.

**W’ or W’bal:** Formerly known as Anaerobic Work Capacity (AWC). A fixed amount of work, expressed in kJ, that you can do above Critical Power. See this explainer video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=86Sw3vOCq9U

**Tau:** your rate of replenishing your W’ stores.

**Endurance index:** the ratio of W’ to CP, it was introduced as Endurance Parameter Ratio in Fukuba Y., Whipp B.J. (1996) The “Endurance Parameter Ratio” of the Power-Duration Curve and Race Variation Strategy for Distance Running.

**P-max:** maximal power over one full rotation of the cranks.

**TSS:** Training Stress Score®. A quantification of the training session that takes into account the duration and intensity of the training based on the power data. It’s intended to estimate the training load and physiological stress created by that session (it’s conceptually modeled after the heart rate-based training load, TRIMP).

**ATL/STS:** Acute Training Load/Short Term Stress. The dose of training that you accumulated over a short period of time, computed as an exponentially weighted moving average of the selected Training Load metric from 3 to 10 days in general, 7 by default. It is claimed to relate to your fatigue.

**CTL/LTS:** Chronic Training Load/Long Term Stress. The dose of training you accumulated over a longer period of time, computed as an exponentially weighted moving average of the selected Training Load metric typically from 4-8 weeks, 42 days by default. It is claimed to relate to your fitness.

**RR:** Ramp Rate. The rate at which CTL/LTS increases over a given time period. Large values up and down indicate a risk of injury and aggressive taper respectively.

**TSB/SB:** Training Stress Balance/Stress Balance. It’s the result of subtracting yesterday’s Acute Training Load/Shor Term Stress (“fatigue”) from yesterday’s Chronic Training Load/Long Term Stress (“fitness”). In general terms, if it’s negative, you’re fatigued, and if it’s positive you’re fresh. It is claimed to relate to your form or freshness.

**TRIMP:** Training Impulse. A method to quantify training load. It takes into consideration the intensity of exercise as calculated by the heart rate (HR) and the duration of exercise (Strava‘s Suffer Score is a modified TRIMP score) TRIMP Points: the original Morton/Banister with Green et al coefficient. TRIMP(100) Points: same as above but scaled so 1 hour at LTHR gives 100 points to “align” it with TSS/BikeScore. TRIMP Zonal Points: points are accumulated according to time in zone weighted by a zone coefficient, which is defined in HR Zones: https://github.com/Golden Cheetah/Golden Cheetah/wiki/UG_Preferences_Athlete_Training-Zones

**QA:** Quadrant Analysis. It tells you how you created the watts, since the same quantinty of watts can be created by a different percentage of force and cadence. It helps to give you an understanding of the muscular and cardiovascular demands created by each ride. It can also help you determine if in training you are creating wattage in the same quadrants that you would in a race. If not, you can change the way you create the wattage so you’re training just as specifically as you race. Quadrant 1 (upper right: high force and high cadence. Quadrant 2 (upper left): high force and low cadence. Quadrant 3 (lower left): low force and low cadence. Quadrant 4 (lower right): low force and high cadence.

**NP:** Normalized Power. It’s an estimate of the power an athlete could have maintained for the same physiological cost if power had been perfectly constant instead of highly variable. In general, it’s not valid for shorter efforts; in these cases average power should be used instead.

**xPower:** In practice, NP and xPower are largely the same, whilst Daniels EqP place much higher emphasis on upper intensity work. For more info on xPower see Dr Skiba’s paper on BikeScore http://perfprostudio.com/webhelp/studio/scr/BikeScore.htm

**TISS:** Training Impact Scoring System. It’s a metric to quantify the training strain or response, as opposed to the training load/stress (like TSS and TRIMP).

**Relative intensity:** This is how your xPower relates to your FTP. When xPower = FTP, the intensity is 1.

**BikeScore:** A quantification of the training session that takes into account the duration and intensity of the training (it’s based on the power data). It’s intended to estimate the training load and physiological stress created by that session. See TSS, Trimp.

**SmO2:** The abbreviation for Muscle Oxygen Saturation, that is, the percentage of hemoglobin that is carrying oxygen within the muscle tissue. Essentially you’re looking at how your body, specifically your muscles, responds to exertion over time. It’s measured by some devices like MOxy Muscle Oxygen Monitor and BXSinsight.

**tHb:** total hemoglobin. It’s part of your SmO2% measurement, and in simple terms it represents the existing volume of blood, where measured.

**Aerobic Decoupling:** When power output and heart rate are no longer parallel in a workout where one variable remains steady while the other drifts, the relationship is said to have “decoupled” (e.g. when power remains constant but heart rate goes up, or when heart rate remains constant and power drops). Excessive decoupling (much higher than 5%) would indicate a lack of aerobic endurance fitness.

**Session RPE:** Rate of perceived exertion. A very useful metric because it is a measure of “rider feeling” of an effort. HR is a measure of internal load, power is a measure of external load, in this manner you can also calculate “perceived effort load” using session RPE. Very easy to compute because session RPE is RPE value multiplied time in minutes. Normally you can use Borg scale (patented) or a custom effort scale (for example from 0 to 10 define your effort) and you easily can compute also another useful training load metrics. For example if HR training load is stable and RPE training load is going up this mean you feel more fatigue with same internal load (or at the same HR you felt more fatigued). Can help to prevent/confirm overreaching or overtraining situation.

**VI:** Variability Index. The ratio of NP divided by average power is called Variability Index (VI). The closer your VI is to 1.0, or the more similar your NP and average power, or the “smoother” your power output was.

**IF:** Intensity Factor. IF is calculated as NP divided by FTP, or in other words, it’s the percentage of your individual FTP that you maintained, on a normalized basis.

**VAM:** average ascent speed. VAM = (metres ascended x 60) / Minutes it took to ascend. A standard unit term with the same meaning is Vm/h, vertical metres per hour; the two are used interchangeably.The relationship between VAM and relative power output is expressed as follows:Relative power (Watts/kg) = VAM (metres/hour) / (Gradient factor x 100).

**Estimated VO2MAX:** computed from 5 min Peak Power relative to Athlete Weight using new ACSM formula: 10.8 * Watts / KG + 7 (3.5 per leg).

TRIATHLON-SPECIFIC VOCABULARY

**SRI:** Swimming Relative Intensity = xPower Swim / STP.

**STP:** Swimming power at CV/threshold pace.

**xPower Swim:** normalized swimming power.

**Pace Swim:** based on average speed with zeros and expressed in min/100m or min/100yd, according to setting.

**xPace Swim:** the constant swim pace which would give the same SwimScore when sustained for the same duration, same units as above.

**IWF:** Intensity Weighting Factor (IWF=LNP/RTP), similar to IF/Relative Intensity.

**GOVSS:** Gravity Ordered Velocity Stress Score, similar to TSS/BikeScore for running.

**LNP:** Lactate Normalized Power: similar to NP/xPower for running.

**VDOT:** VDOT is an adjusted V02max (which may or may not match a laboratory-generated V02max), which tells you how you might race for other distances (in the row, associated with the same VDOT), and also tells you how first to perform different types of training.

**TriScore:** a combined stress score computed according to sport: BikeScore for cycling, GOVSS for running and SwimScore for swimming.

**SwimScore:** Based on speed data channel, athletes weight and CV setting from Swim Pace Zones (both weight and CV can be overriden on activity basis). Calculated according to http://www.physfarm.com/swimscore.pdf

**Vmax:** the equivalent Pmax when modelling speed-vs-duration instead of power-vs-duration

**FTV:** the equivalent to FTP when modelling speed-vs-duration instead of power-vs-duration

**D’:** the equivalent to W’ when modelling speed-vs-duration instead of power-vs-duration

**CV:** the equivalents CP when modelling speed-vs-duration instead of power-vs-duration

**RTP:** Running Threshold Power. Based on athlete’s CV.

**Appendix 2 – Glossary**

Golden Cheetah Specific Glossary

**CP:** Critical Power. A power that theoretically can be maintained for an indefinitely long time without fatigue.

**FTP:** Functional Threshold Power. The highest power that a rider can maintain in a quasi-steady state without fatiguing for approximately one hour.

**W’ or W’bal:** Formerly known as Anaerobic Work Capacity (AWC). A fixed amount of work, expressed in kJ, that you can do above Critical Power. See this explainer video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=86Sw3vOCq9U

**Tau:** your rate of replenishing your W’ stores.

**Endurance index:** the ratio of W’ to CP, it was introduced as Endurance Parameter Ratio in Fukuba Y., Whipp B.J. (1996) The “Endurance Parameter Ratio” of the Power-Duration Curve and Race Variation Strategy for Distance Running.

**P-max:** maximal power over one full rotation of the cranks.

**TSS:** Training Stress Score®. A quantification of the training session that takes into account the duration and intensity of the training based on the power data. It’s intended to estimate the training load and physiological stress created by that session (it’s conceptually modeled after the heart rate-based training load, TRIMP).

**ATL/STS:** Acute Training Load/Short Term Stress. The dose of training that you accumulated over a short period of time, computed as an exponentially weighted moving average of the selected Training Load metric from 3 to 10 days in general, 7 by default. It is claimed to relate to your fatigue.

**CTL/LTS:** Chronic Training Load/Long Term Stress. The dose of training you accumulated over a longer period of time, computed as an exponentially weighted moving average of the selected Training Load metric typically from 4-8 weeks, 42 days by default. It is claimed to relate to your fitness.

**RR:** Ramp Rate. The rate at which CTL/LTS increases over a given time period. Large values up and down indicate a risk of injury and aggressive taper respectively.

**TSB/SB:** Training Stress Balance/Stress Balance. It’s the result of subtracting yesterday’s Acute Training Load/Shor Term Stress (“fatigue”) from yesterday’s Chronic Training Load/Long Term Stress (“fitness”). In general terms, if it’s negative, you’re fatigued, and if it’s positive you’re fresh. It is claimed to relate to your form or freshness.

**TRIMP:** Training Impulse. A method to quantify training load. It takes into consideration the intensity of exercise as calculated by the heart rate (HR) and the duration of exercise (Strava‘s Suffer Score is a modified TRIMP score) TRIMP Points: the original Morton/Banister with Green et al coefficient. TRIMP(100) Points: same as above but scaled so 1 hour at LTHR gives 100 points to “align” it with TSS/BikeScore. TRIMP Zonal Points: points are accumulated according to time in zone weighted by a zone coefficient, which is defined in HR Zones: https://github.com/Golden Cheetah/Golden Cheetah/wiki/UG_Preferences_Athlete_Training-Zones

**QA:** Quadrant Analysis. It tells you how you created the watts, since the same quantinty of watts can be created by a different percentage of force and cadence. It helps to give you an understanding of the muscular and cardiovascular demands created by each ride. It can also help you determine if in training you are creating wattage in the same quadrants that you would in a race. If not, you can change the way you create the wattage so you’re training just as specifically as you race. Quadrant 1 (upper right: high force and high cadence. Quadrant 2 (upper left): high force and low cadence. Quadrant 3 (lower left): low force and low cadence. Quadrant 4 (lower right): low force and high cadence.

**NP:** Normalized Power. It’s an estimate of the power an athlete could have maintained for the same physiological cost if power had been perfectly constant instead of highly variable. In general, it’s not valid for shorter efforts; in these cases average power should be used instead.

**xPower:** In practice, NP and xPower are largely the same, whilst Daniels EqP place much higher emphasis on upper intensity work. For more info on xPower see Dr Skiba’s paper on BikeScore http://perfprostudio.com/webhelp/studio/scr/BikeScore.htm

**TISS:** Training Impact Scoring System. It’s a metric to quantify the training strain or response, as opposed to the training load/stress (like TSS and TRIMP).

**Relative intensity:** This is how your xPower relates to your FTP. When xPower = FTP, the intensity is 1.

**BikeScore:** A quantification of the training session that takes into account the duration and intensity of the training (it’s based on the power data). It’s intended to estimate the training load and physiological stress created by that session. See TSS, Trimp.

**SmO2:** The abbreviation for Muscle Oxygen Saturation, that is, the percentage of hemoglobin that is carrying oxygen within the muscle tissue. Essentially you’re looking at how your body, specifically your muscles, responds to exertion over time. It’s measured by some devices like MOxy Muscle Oxygen Monitor and BXSinsight.

**tHb:** total hemoglobin. It’s part of your SmO2% measurement, and in simple terms it represents the existing volume of blood, where measured.

**Aerobic Decoupling:** When power output and heart rate are no longer parallel in a workout where one variable remains steady while the other drifts, the relationship is said to have “decoupled” (e.g. when power remains constant but heart rate goes up, or when heart rate remains constant and power drops). Excessive decoupling (much higher than 5%) would indicate a lack of aerobic endurance fitness.

**Session RPE:** Rate of perceived exertion. A very useful metric because it is a measure of “rider feeling” of an effort. HR is a measure of internal load, power is a measure of external load, in this manner you can also calculate “perceived effort load” using session RPE. Very easy to compute because session RPE is RPE value multiplied time in minutes. Normally you can use Borg scale (patented) or a custom effort scale (for example from 0 to 10 define your effort) and you easily can compute also another useful training load metrics. For example if HR training load is stable and RPE training load is going up this mean you feel more fatigue with same internal load (or at the same HR you felt more fatigued). Can help to prevent/confirm overreaching or overtraining situation.

**VI:** Variability Index. The ratio of NP divided by average power is called Variability Index (VI). The closer your VI is to 1.0, or the more similar your NP and average power, or the “smoother” your power output was.

**IF:** Intensity Factor. IF is calculated as NP divided by FTP, or in other words, it’s the percentage of your individual FTP that you maintained, on a normalized basis.

**VAM:** average ascent speed. VAM = (metres ascended x 60) / Minutes it took to ascend. A standard unit term with the same meaning is Vm/h, vertical metres per hour; the two are used interchangeably.The relationship between VAM and relative power output is expressed as follows:Relative power (Watts/kg) = VAM (metres/hour) / (Gradient factor x 100).

**Estimated VO2MAX:** computed from 5 min Peak Power relative to Athlete Weight using new ACSM formula: 10.8 * Watts / KG + 7 (3.5 per leg).

TRIATHLON-SPECIFIC VOCABULARY

**SRI:** Swimming Relative Intensity = xPower Swim / STP.

**STP:** Swimming power at CV/threshold pace.

**xPower Swim:** normalized swimming power.

**Pace Swim:** based on average speed with zeros and expressed in min/100m or min/100yd, according to setting.

**xPace Swim:** the constant swim pace which would give the same SwimScore when sustained for the same duration, same units as above.

**IWF:** Intensity Weighting Factor (IWF=LNP/RTP), similar to IF/Relative Intensity.

**GOVSS:** Gravity Ordered Velocity Stress Score, similar to TSS/BikeScore for running.

**LNP:** Lactate Normalized Power: similar to NP/xPower for running.

**VDOT:** VDOT is an adjusted V02max (which may or may not match a laboratory-generated V02max), which tells you how you might race for other distances (in the row, associated with the same VDOT), and also tells you how first to perform different types of training.

**TriScore:** a combined stress score computed according to sport: BikeScore for cycling, GOVSS for running and SwimScore for swimming.

**SwimScore:** Based on speed data channel, athletes weight and CV setting from Swim Pace Zones (both weight and CV can be overriden on activity basis). Calculated according to http://www.physfarm.com/swimscore.pdf

**Vmax:** the equivalent Pmax when modelling speed-vs-duration instead of power-vs-duration

**FTV:** the equivalent to FTP when modelling speed-vs-duration instead of power-vs-duration

**D’:** the equivalent to W’ when modelling speed-vs-duration instead of power-vs-duration

**CV:** the equivalents CP when modelling speed-vs-duration instead of power-vs-duration

**RTP:** Running Threshold Power. Based on athlete’s CV.

**Appendix 2 – Glossary**

Golden Cheetah Specific Glossary

**CP:** Critical Power. A power that theoretically can be maintained for an indefinitely long time without fatigue.

**FTP:** Functional Threshold Power. The highest power that a rider can maintain in a quasi-steady state without fatiguing for approximately one hour.

**W’ or W’bal:** Formerly known as Anaerobic Work Capacity (AWC). A fixed amount of work, expressed in kJ, that you can do above Critical Power. See this explainer video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=86Sw3vOCq9U

**Tau:** your rate of replenishing your W’ stores.

**Endurance index:** the ratio of W’ to CP, it was introduced as Endurance Parameter Ratio in Fukuba Y., Whipp B.J. (1996) The “Endurance Parameter Ratio” of the Power-Duration Curve and Race Variation Strategy for Distance Running.

**P-max:** maximal power over one full rotation of the cranks.

**TSS:** Training Stress Score®. A quantification of the training session that takes into account the duration and intensity of the training based on the power data. It’s intended to estimate the training load and physiological stress created by that session (it’s conceptually modeled after the heart rate-based training load, TRIMP).

**ATL/STS:** Acute Training Load/Short Term Stress. The dose of training that you accumulated over a short period of time, computed as an exponentially weighted moving average of the selected Training Load metric from 3 to 10 days in general, 7 by default. It is claimed to relate to your fatigue.

**CTL/LTS:** Chronic Training Load/Long Term Stress. The dose of training you accumulated over a longer period of time, computed as an exponentially weighted moving average of the selected Training Load metric typically from 4-8 weeks, 42 days by default. It is claimed to relate to your fitness.

**RR:** Ramp Rate. The rate at which CTL/LTS increases over a given time period. Large values up and down indicate a risk of injury and aggressive taper respectively.

**TSB/SB:** Training Stress Balance/Stress Balance. It’s the result of subtracting yesterday’s Acute Training Load/Shor Term Stress (“fatigue”) from yesterday’s Chronic Training Load/Long Term Stress (“fitness”). In general terms, if it’s negative, you’re fatigued, and if it’s positive you’re fresh. It is claimed to relate to your form or freshness.

**TRIMP:** Training Impulse. A method to quantify training load. It takes into consideration the intensity of exercise as calculated by the heart rate (HR) and the duration of exercise (Strava‘s Suffer Score is a modified TRIMP score) TRIMP Points: the original Morton/Banister with Green et al coefficient. TRIMP(100) Points: same as above but scaled so 1 hour at LTHR gives 100 points to “align” it with TSS/BikeScore. TRIMP Zonal Points: points are accumulated according to time in zone weighted by a zone coefficient, which is defined in HR Zones: https://github.com/Golden Cheetah/Golden Cheetah/wiki/UG_Preferences_Athlete_Training-Zones

**QA:** Quadrant Analysis. It tells you how you created the watts, since the same quantinty of watts can be created by a different percentage of force and cadence. It helps to give you an understanding of the muscular and cardiovascular demands created by each ride. It can also help you determine if in training you are creating wattage in the same quadrants that you would in a race. If not, you can change the way you create the wattage so you’re training just as specifically as you race. Quadrant 1 (upper right: high force and high cadence. Quadrant 2 (upper left): high force and low cadence. Quadrant 3 (lower left): low force and low cadence. Quadrant 4 (lower right): low force and high cadence.

**NP:** Normalized Power. It’s an estimate of the power an athlete could have maintained for the same physiological cost if power had been perfectly constant instead of highly variable. In general, it’s not valid for shorter efforts; in these cases average power should be used instead.

**xPower:** In practice, NP and xPower are largely the same, whilst Daniels EqP place much higher emphasis on upper intensity work. For more info on xPower see Dr Skiba’s paper on BikeScore http://perfprostudio.com/webhelp/studio/scr/BikeScore.htm

**TISS:** Training Impact Scoring System. It’s a metric to quantify the training strain or response, as opposed to the training load/stress (like TSS and TRIMP).

**Relative intensity:** This is how your xPower relates to your FTP. When xPower = FTP, the intensity is 1.

**BikeScore:** A quantification of the training session that takes into account the duration and intensity of the training (it’s based on the power data). It’s intended to estimate the training load and physiological stress created by that session. See TSS, Trimp.

**SmO2:** The abbreviation for Muscle Oxygen Saturation, that is, the percentage of hemoglobin that is carrying oxygen within the muscle tissue. Essentially you’re looking at how your body, specifically your muscles, responds to exertion over time. It’s measured by some devices like MOxy Muscle Oxygen Monitor and BXSinsight.

**tHb:** total hemoglobin. It’s part of your SmO2% measurement, and in simple terms it represents the existing volume of blood, where measured.

**Aerobic Decoupling:** When power output and heart rate are no longer parallel in a workout where one variable remains steady while the other drifts, the relationship is said to have “decoupled” (e.g. when power remains constant but heart rate goes up, or when heart rate remains constant and power drops). Excessive decoupling (much higher than 5%) would indicate a lack of aerobic endurance fitness.

**Session RPE:** Rate of perceived exertion. A very useful metric because it is a measure of “rider feeling” of an effort. HR is a measure of internal load, power is a measure of external load, in this manner you can also calculate “perceived effort load” using session RPE. Very easy to compute because session RPE is RPE value multiplied time in minutes. Normally you can use Borg scale (patented) or a custom effort scale (for example from 0 to 10 define your effort) and you easily can compute also another useful training load metrics. For example if HR training load is stable and RPE training load is going up this mean you feel more fatigue with same internal load (or at the same HR you felt more fatigued). Can help to prevent/confirm overreaching or overtraining situation.

**VI:** Variability Index. The ratio of NP divided by average power is called Variability Index (VI). The closer your VI is to 1.0, or the more similar your NP and average power, or the “smoother” your power output was.

**IF:** Intensity Factor. IF is calculated as NP divided by FTP, or in other words, it’s the percentage of your individual FTP that you maintained, on a normalized basis.

**VAM:** average ascent speed. VAM = (metres ascended x 60) / Minutes it took to ascend. A standard unit term with the same meaning is Vm/h, vertical metres per hour; the two are used interchangeably.The relationship between VAM and relative power output is expressed as follows:Relative power (Watts/kg) = VAM (metres/hour) / (Gradient factor x 100).

**Estimated VO2MAX:** computed from 5 min Peak Power relative to Athlete Weight using new ACSM formula: 10.8 * Watts / KG + 7 (3.5 per leg).

TRIATHLON-SPECIFIC VOCABULARY

**SRI:** Swimming Relative Intensity = xPower Swim / STP.

**STP:** Swimming power at CV/threshold pace.

**xPower Swim:** normalized swimming power.

**Pace Swim:** based on average speed with zeros and expressed in min/100m or min/100yd, according to setting.

**xPace Swim:** the constant swim pace which would give the same SwimScore when sustained for the same duration, same units as above.

**IWF:** Intensity Weighting Factor (IWF=LNP/RTP), similar to IF/Relative Intensity.

**GOVSS:** Gravity Ordered Velocity Stress Score, similar to TSS/BikeScore for running.

**LNP:** Lactate Normalized Power: similar to NP/xPower for running.

**VDOT:** VDOT is an adjusted V02max (which may or may not match a laboratory-generated V02max), which tells you how you might race for other distances (in the row, associated with the same VDOT), and also tells you how first to perform different types of training.

**TriScore:** a combined stress score computed according to sport: BikeScore for cycling, GOVSS for running and SwimScore for swimming.

**SwimScore:** Based on speed data channel, athletes weight and CV setting from Swim Pace Zones (both weight and CV can be overriden on activity basis). Calculated according to http://www.physfarm.com/swimscore.pdf

**Vmax:** the equivalent Pmax when modelling speed-vs-duration instead of power-vs-duration

**FTV:** the equivalent to FTP when modelling speed-vs-duration instead of power-vs-duration

**D’:** the equivalent to W’ when modelling speed-vs-duration instead of power-vs-duration

**CV:** the equivalents CP when modelling speed-vs-duration instead of power-vs-duration

**RTP:** Running Threshold Power. Based on athlete’s CV.

**Appendix 2 – Glossary**

Golden Cheetah Specific Glossary

**CP:** Critical Power. A power that theoretically can be maintained for an indefinitely long time without fatigue.

**FTP:** Functional Threshold Power. The highest power that a rider can maintain in a quasi-steady state without fatiguing for approximately one hour.

**W’ or W’bal:** Formerly known as Anaerobic Work Capacity (AWC). A fixed amount of work, expressed in kJ, that you can do above Critical Power. See this explainer video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=86Sw3vOCq9U

**Tau:** your rate of replenishing your W’ stores.

**Endurance index:** the ratio of W’ to CP, it was introduced as Endurance Parameter Ratio in Fukuba Y., Whipp B.J. (1996) The “Endurance Parameter Ratio” of the Power-Duration Curve and Race Variation Strategy for Distance Running.

**P-max:** maximal power over one full rotation of the cranks.

**TSS:** Training Stress Score®. A quantification of the training session that takes into account the duration and intensity of the training based on the power data. It’s intended to estimate the training load and physiological stress created by that session (it’s conceptually modeled after the heart rate-based training load, TRIMP).

**ATL/STS:** Acute Training Load/Short Term Stress. The dose of training that you accumulated over a short period of time, computed as an exponentially weighted moving average of the selected Training Load metric from 3 to 10 days in general, 7 by default. It is claimed to relate to your fatigue.

**CTL/LTS:** Chronic Training Load/Long Term Stress. The dose of training you accumulated over a longer period of time, computed as an exponentially weighted moving average of the selected Training Load metric typically from 4-8 weeks, 42 days by default. It is claimed to relate to your fitness.

**RR:** Ramp Rate. The rate at which CTL/LTS increases over a given time period. Large values up and down indicate a risk of injury and aggressive taper respectively.

**TSB/SB:** Training Stress Balance/Stress Balance. It’s the result of subtracting yesterday’s Acute Training Load/Shor Term Stress (“fatigue”) from yesterday’s Chronic Training Load/Long Term Stress (“fitness”). In general terms, if it’s negative, you’re fatigued, and if it’s positive you’re fresh. It is claimed to relate to your form or freshness.

**TRIMP:** Training Impulse. A method to quantify training load. It takes into consideration the intensity of exercise as calculated by the heart rate (HR) and the duration of exercise (Strava‘s Suffer Score is a modified TRIMP score) TRIMP Points: the original Morton/Banister with Green et al coefficient. TRIMP(100) Points: same as above but scaled so 1 hour at LTHR gives 100 points to “align” it with TSS/BikeScore. TRIMP Zonal Points: points are accumulated according to time in zone weighted by a zone coefficient, which is defined in HR Zones: https://github.com/Golden Cheetah/Golden Cheetah/wiki/UG_Preferences_Athlete_Training-Zones

**QA:** Quadrant Analysis. It tells you how you created the watts, since the same quantinty of watts can be created by a different percentage of force and cadence. It helps to give you an understanding of the muscular and cardiovascular demands created by each ride. It can also help you determine if in training you are creating wattage in the same quadrants that you would in a race. If not, you can change the way you create the wattage so you’re training just as specifically as you race. Quadrant 1 (upper right: high force and high cadence. Quadrant 2 (upper left): high force and low cadence. Quadrant 3 (lower left): low force and low cadence. Quadrant 4 (lower right): low force and high cadence.

**NP:** Normalized Power. It’s an estimate of the power an athlete could have maintained for the same physiological cost if power had been perfectly constant instead of highly variable. In general, it’s not valid for shorter efforts; in these cases average power should be used instead.

**xPower:** In practice, NP and xPower are largely the same, whilst Daniels EqP place much higher emphasis on upper intensity work. For more info on xPower see Dr Skiba’s paper on BikeScore http://perfprostudio.com/webhelp/studio/scr/BikeScore.htm

**TISS:** Training Impact Scoring System. It’s a metric to quantify the training strain or response, as opposed to the training load/stress (like TSS and TRIMP).

**Relative intensity:** This is how your xPower relates to your FTP. When xPower = FTP, the intensity is 1.

**BikeScore:** A quantification of the training session that takes into account the duration and intensity of the training (it’s based on the power data). It’s intended to estimate the training load and physiological stress created by that session. See TSS, Trimp.

**SmO2:** The abbreviation for Muscle Oxygen Saturation, that is, the percentage of hemoglobin that is carrying oxygen within the muscle tissue. Essentially you’re looking at how your body, specifically your muscles, responds to exertion over time. It’s measured by some devices like MOxy Muscle Oxygen Monitor and BXSinsight.

**tHb:** total hemoglobin. It’s part of your SmO2% measurement, and in simple terms it represents the existing volume of blood, where measured.

**Aerobic Decoupling:** When power output and heart rate are no longer parallel in a workout where one variable remains steady while the other drifts, the relationship is said to have “decoupled” (e.g. when power remains constant but heart rate goes up, or when heart rate remains constant and power drops). Excessive decoupling (much higher than 5%) would indicate a lack of aerobic endurance fitness.

**Session RPE:** Rate of perceived exertion. A very useful metric because it is a measure of “rider feeling” of an effort. HR is a measure of internal load, power is a measure of external load, in this manner you can also calculate “perceived effort load” using session RPE. Very easy to compute because session RPE is RPE value multiplied time in minutes. Normally you can use Borg scale (patented) or a custom effort scale (for example from 0 to 10 define your effort) and you easily can compute also another useful training load metrics. For example if HR training load is stable and RPE training load is going up this mean you feel more fatigue with same internal load (or at the same HR you felt more fatigued). Can help to prevent/confirm overreaching or overtraining situation.

**VI:** Variability Index. The ratio of NP divided by average power is called Variability Index (VI). The closer your VI is to 1.0, or the more similar your NP and average power, or the “smoother” your power output was.

**IF:** Intensity Factor. IF is calculated as NP divided by FTP, or in other words, it’s the percentage of your individual FTP that you maintained, on a normalized basis.

**VAM:** average ascent speed. VAM = (metres ascended x 60) / Minutes it took to ascend. A standard unit term with the same meaning is Vm/h, vertical metres per hour; the two are used interchangeably.The relationship between VAM and relative power output is expressed as follows:Relative power (Watts/kg) = VAM (metres/hour) / (Gradient factor x 100).

**Estimated VO2MAX:** computed from 5 min Peak Power relative to Athlete Weight using new ACSM formula: 10.8 * Watts / KG + 7 (3.5 per leg).

TRIATHLON-SPECIFIC VOCABULARY

**SRI:** Swimming Relative Intensity = xPower Swim / STP.

**STP:** Swimming power at CV/threshold pace.

**xPower Swim:** normalized swimming power.

**Pace Swim:** based on average speed with zeros and expressed in min/100m or min/100yd, according to setting.

**xPace Swim:** the constant swim pace which would give the same SwimScore when sustained for the same duration, same units as above.

**IWF:** Intensity Weighting Factor (IWF=LNP/RTP), similar to IF/Relative Intensity.

**GOVSS:** Gravity Ordered Velocity Stress Score, similar to TSS/BikeScore for running.

**LNP:** Lactate Normalized Power: similar to NP/xPower for running.

**VDOT:** VDOT is an adjusted V02max (which may or may not match a laboratory-generated V02max), which tells you how you might race for other distances (in the row, associated with the same VDOT), and also tells you how first to perform different types of training.

**TriScore:** a combined stress score computed according to sport: BikeScore for cycling, GOVSS for running and SwimScore for swimming.

**SwimScore:** Based on speed data channel, athletes weight and CV setting from Swim Pace Zones (both weight and CV can be overriden on activity basis). Calculated according to http://www.physfarm.com/swimscore.pdf

**Vmax:** the equivalent Pmax when modelling speed-vs-duration instead of power-vs-duration

**FTV:** the equivalent to FTP when modelling speed-vs-duration instead of power-vs-duration

**D’:** the equivalent to W’ when modelling speed-vs-duration instead of power-vs-duration

**CV:** the equivalents CP when modelling speed-vs-duration instead of power-vs-duration

**RTP:** Running Threshold Power. Based on athlete’s CV.

**Appendix 2 – Glossary**

Golden Cheetah Specific Glossary

**CP:** Critical Power. A power that theoretically can be maintained for an indefinitely long time without fatigue.

**FTP:** Functional Threshold Power. The highest power that a rider can maintain in a quasi-steady state without fatiguing for approximately one hour.

**W’ or W’bal:** Formerly known as Anaerobic Work Capacity (AWC). A fixed amount of work, expressed in kJ, that you can do above Critical Power. See this explainer video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=86Sw3vOCq9U

**Tau:** your rate of replenishing your W’ stores.

**Endurance index:** the ratio of W’ to CP, it was introduced as Endurance Parameter Ratio in Fukuba Y., Whipp B.J. (1996) The “Endurance Parameter Ratio” of the Power-Duration Curve and Race Variation Strategy for Distance Running.

**P-max:** maximal power over one full rotation of the cranks.

**TSS:** Training Stress Score®. A quantification of the training session that takes into account the duration and intensity of the training based on the power data. It’s intended to estimate the training load and physiological stress created by that session (it’s conceptually modeled after the heart rate-based training load, TRIMP).

**ATL/STS:** Acute Training Load/Short Term Stress. The dose of training that you accumulated over a short period of time, computed as an exponentially weighted moving average of the selected Training Load metric from 3 to 10 days in general, 7 by default. It is claimed to relate to your fatigue.

**CTL/LTS:** Chronic Training Load/Long Term Stress. The dose of training you accumulated over a longer period of time, computed as an exponentially weighted moving average of the selected Training Load metric typically from 4-8 weeks, 42 days by default. It is claimed to relate to your fitness.

**RR:** Ramp Rate. The rate at which CTL/LTS increases over a given time period. Large values up and down indicate a risk of injury and aggressive taper respectively.

**TSB/SB:** Training Stress Balance/Stress Balance. It’s the result of subtracting yesterday’s Acute Training Load/Shor Term Stress (“fatigue”) from yesterday’s Chronic Training Load/Long Term Stress (“fitness”). In general terms, if it’s negative, you’re fatigued, and if it’s positive you’re fresh. It is claimed to relate to your form or freshness.

**TRIMP:** Training Impulse. A method to quantify training load. It takes into consideration the intensity of exercise as calculated by the heart rate (HR) and the duration of exercise (Strava‘s Suffer Score is a modified TRIMP score) TRIMP Points: the original Morton/Banister with Green et al coefficient. TRIMP(100) Points: same as above but scaled so 1 hour at LTHR gives 100 points to “align” it with TSS/BikeScore. TRIMP Zonal Points: points are accumulated according to time in zone weighted by a zone coefficient, which is defined in HR Zones: https://github.com/Golden Cheetah/Golden Cheetah/wiki/UG_Preferences_Athlete_Training-Zones

**QA:** Quadrant Analysis. It tells you how you created the watts, since the same quantinty of watts can be created by a different percentage of force and cadence. It helps to give you an understanding of the muscular and cardiovascular demands created by each ride. It can also help you determine if in training you are creating wattage in the same quadrants that you would in a race. If not, you can change the way you create the wattage so you’re training just as specifically as you race. Quadrant 1 (upper right: high force and high cadence. Quadrant 2 (upper left): high force and low cadence. Quadrant 3 (lower left): low force and low cadence. Quadrant 4 (lower right): low force and high cadence.

**NP:** Normalized Power. It’s an estimate of the power an athlete could have maintained for the same physiological cost if power had been perfectly constant instead of highly variable. In general, it’s not valid for shorter efforts; in these cases average power should be used instead.

**xPower:** In practice, NP and xPower are largely the same, whilst Daniels EqP place much higher emphasis on upper intensity work. For more info on xPower see Dr Skiba’s paper on BikeScore http://perfprostudio.com/webhelp/studio/scr/BikeScore.htm

**TISS:** Training Impact Scoring System. It’s a metric to quantify the training strain or response, as opposed to the training load/stress (like TSS and TRIMP).

**Relative intensity:** This is how your xPower relates to your FTP. When xPower = FTP, the intensity is 1.

**BikeScore:** A quantification of the training session that takes into account the duration and intensity of the training (it’s based on the power data). It’s intended to estimate the training load and physiological stress created by that session. See TSS, Trimp.

**SmO2:** The abbreviation for Muscle Oxygen Saturation, that is, the percentage of hemoglobin that is carrying oxygen within the muscle tissue. Essentially you’re looking at how your body, specifically your muscles, responds to exertion over time. It’s measured by some devices like MOxy Muscle Oxygen Monitor and BXSinsight.

**tHb:** total hemoglobin. It’s part of your SmO2% measurement, and in simple terms it represents the existing volume of blood, where measured.

**Aerobic Decoupling:** When power output and heart rate are no longer parallel in a workout where one variable remains steady while the other drifts, the relationship is said to have “decoupled” (e.g. when power remains constant but heart rate goes up, or when heart rate remains constant and power drops). Excessive decoupling (much higher than 5%) would indicate a lack of aerobic endurance fitness.

**Session RPE:** Rate of perceived exertion. A very useful metric because it is a measure of “rider feeling” of an effort. HR is a measure of internal load, power is a measure of external load, in this manner you can also calculate “perceived effort load” using session RPE. Very easy to compute because session RPE is RPE value multiplied time in minutes. Normally you can use Borg scale (patented) or a custom effort scale (for example from 0 to 10 define your effort) and you easily can compute also another useful training load metrics. For example if HR training load is stable and RPE training load is going up this mean you feel more fatigue with same internal load (or at the same HR you felt more fatigued). Can help to prevent/confirm overreaching or overtraining situation.

**VI:** Variability Index. The ratio of NP divided by average power is called Variability Index (VI). The closer your VI is to 1.0, or the more similar your NP and average power, or the “smoother” your power output was.

**IF:** Intensity Factor. IF is calculated as NP divided by FTP, or in other words, it’s the percentage of your individual FTP that you maintained, on a normalized basis.

**VAM:** average ascent speed. VAM = (metres ascended x 60) / Minutes it took to ascend. A standard unit term with the same meaning is Vm/h, vertical metres per hour; the two are used interchangeably.The relationship between VAM and relative power output is expressed as follows:Relative power (Watts/kg) = VAM (metres/hour) / (Gradient factor x 100).

**Estimated VO2MAX:** computed from 5 min Peak Power relative to Athlete Weight using new ACSM formula: 10.8 * Watts / KG + 7 (3.5 per leg).

TRIATHLON-SPECIFIC VOCABULARY

**SRI:** Swimming Relative Intensity = xPower Swim / STP.

**STP:** Swimming power at CV/threshold pace.

**xPower Swim:** normalized swimming power.

**Pace Swim:** based on average speed with zeros and expressed in min/100m or min/100yd, according to setting.

**xPace Swim:** the constant swim pace which would give the same SwimScore when sustained for the same duration, same units as above.

**IWF:** Intensity Weighting Factor (IWF=LNP/RTP), similar to IF/Relative Intensity.

**GOVSS:** Gravity Ordered Velocity Stress Score, similar to TSS/BikeScore for running.

**LNP:** Lactate Normalized Power: similar to NP/xPower for running.

**VDOT:** VDOT is an adjusted V02max (which may or may not match a laboratory-generated V02max), which tells you how you might race for other distances (in the row, associated with the same VDOT), and also tells you how first to perform different types of training.

**TriScore:** a combined stress score computed according to sport: BikeScore for cycling, GOVSS for running and SwimScore for swimming.

**SwimScore:** Based on speed data channel, athletes weight and CV setting from Swim Pace Zones (both weight and CV can be overriden on activity basis). Calculated according to http://www.physfarm.com/swimscore.pdf

**Vmax:** the equivalent Pmax when modelling speed-vs-duration instead of power-vs-duration

**FTV:** the equivalent to FTP when modelling speed-vs-duration instead of power-vs-duration

**D’:** the equivalent to W’ when modelling speed-vs-duration instead of power-vs-duration

**CV:** the equivalents CP when modelling speed-vs-duration instead of power-vs-duration

**RTP:** Running Threshold Power. Based on athlete’s CV.